In this paper, we examine how energy consumption differs among different residential housing types. Most previous research suggests that apartments are less energy efficient than single-family homes, whether owner-occupied or rental. In addition, principal-agent problems in rental housing are said to lead to greater energy consumption by renters. Using microdata from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey, we examined the impact of both structure type and tenure on energy usage. Our results show that multifamily homes are more energy efficient than single-family homes, and that it is not tenure, but rather whether the resident pays for energy directly that affects energy usage.